Category Archives: Causes of Diabetes

Reduce Insulin Resistance with Resistance Training

Didn’t we already know this? The study at hand involved 10 overweight young men.

Insulin is a blood-borne hormone that the pancreas gland secretes in order to keep blood sugar levels from getting too high. (Insulin does many other things, but table that for now.) Insulin triggers certain body cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. “Insulin resistance” means that these cells don’t respond to insulin as well as they should, so either the pancreas secretes even more insulin (hyperinsulinemia) or blood sugar levels rise. Insulin resistance is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most overweight or obese type 2 diabetics have insulin resistance. Many experts think hyperinsulinemia causes disease by itself, regardless of blood sugar levels. So it may be best to avoid insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of resistance exercise training, composed of one set of each exercise to voluntary failure, on insulin sensitivity and the time course of adaptations in muscle strength/mass. Ten overweight men (age 36 ± 8 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 89 ± 14 kg; body mass index 29 ± 3 kg m−2) were recruited to the study. Resistance exercise training involved three sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session involved one set of nine exercises, performed at 80% of one‐repetition maximum to volitional failure. Sessions lasted 15–20 min. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and post‐intervention. Vastus lateralis muscle thickness, knee‐extensor maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (measured between 0 and 50, 0 and 100, 0 and 200, and 0 and 300 ms) were measured at baseline, each week of the intervention, and after the intervention. Resistance training resulted in a 16.3 ± 18.7% (P < 0.05) increase in insulin sensitivity (Cederholm index). Muscle thickness, maximal isometric torque and one‐repetition maximum increased with training, and at the end of the intervention were 10.3 ± 2.5, 26.9 ± 8.3, 18.3 ± 4.5% higher (P < 0.05 for both) than baseline, respectively. The rate of torque development at 50 and 100 ms, but not at 200 and 300 ms, increased (P < 0.05) over the intervention period. Six weeks of single‐set resistance exercise to failure results in improvements in insulin sensitivity and increases in muscle size and strength in young overweight men.

Source: The effect of short‐duration resistance training on insulin sensitivity and muscle adaptations in overweight men – Ismail – 2019 – Experimental Physiology – Wiley Online Library

Steve Parker, M.D.

Chronic Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Linked to Type 2 Diabetes

prilosec, proton pump inhibitor
Neither the cited study nor I implicate Prilosec in particular

Regular use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases patients’ risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by 24%, an observational study published in Gut has suggested.

Source: Regular use of PPIs linked with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, study suggests | News | Pharmaceutical Journal

Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in the U.S. to treat esophageal reflux, ulcers, and dyspepsia. They are among the most widely prescribed drugs. You can also get them over-the-counter. Brand names include Protonix, Prilosec, and Nexium.

The study at hand defined “regular use” as at least twice per week. The study was an epidemiological one observing participants for 10-12 years. The more years of regular use, the greater risk of diabetes developing. Nearly all participants were White, so results may not apply to other ethnicities.

Note that this study doesn’t prove that PPIs cause diabetes. They just found a statistical linkage. As you know, correlation does not equal causation. We don’t know how PPIs could cause T2 diabetes. From the article:

According to the study, the possible mechanism for the association could be related to gut microbiota, as previous studies have shown that PPI use is associated with reduced diversity of gut microbiome and consistent changes in the microbiota phenotype.

Steve Parker, M.D.

How to Prevent Full-Blown Diabetes After Gestational Diabetes

Paleobetic diet

“Mommy, I don’t want you to get diabetes.”

Gestational diabetes occurs in one out of twenty pregnancies in the U.S., affecting more than 240,000 births annually. Compared to caucasians, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs more often in blacks, native Americans, Asians, and Latinos.

So What’s the Big Deal?

Numerous problems are associated with GDM, for both the mother and the baby:

  • dangerously high blood pressure (preeclampsia)
  • excessive amount of amniotic fluid (the baby in the uterus floats in this fluid)
  • delivery requiring an operation
  • early or premature delivery
  • death of the baby
  • birth trauma, such as broken bones or nerve injury
  • metabolic problems in the baby (low blood sugar, for example)
  • abnormally large baby (macrosomia, a major problem)

Having had gestational diabetes once, a woman is at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life, when she’s not pregnant. Can this be prevented?

From the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics:

Based on the current evidence, a specific dietary intervention for diabetes prevention in women with prior GDM [gestational diabetes mellitus] can therefore not be recommended. Previous systematic reviews have also consistently concluded that evidence for an effect of combined diet and physical activity interventions is inconclusive, with the exception of strong evidence from the Diabetes Prevention Program. Findings from that intensive intervention that focused on diet and physical activity to achieve and maintain weight loss of at least 7% of initial body weight showed >50% reduction in the risk of developing T2DM in women at high risk of T2DM including women with previous GDM; however, this personalised lifestyle intervention is unlikely to be feasible for implementation in routine care. As a limited number of studies have examined diet-alone and physical activity-alone interventions, it remains unclear which diabetes prevention approach would be most effective for women with a GDM history.

Source: The Role of Diet in the Prevention of Diabetes among Women with Prior Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Intervention and Observational Studies – Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

If it were me at risk for T2 diabetes? I’d lose the excess weight with a reasonable diet and exercise regularly.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Click pic to purchase book at Amazon.com. E-book versions available at Smashwords.com.

 

Ultra-processed Food Linked to Type 2 Diabetes

 

One example of UPF

A recent observational study done in France found an association between incidence of type 2 diabetes and consumption of ultra-processed foods.

What are ultra-processed foods? From the study at hand, “Ultraprocessed foods (UPF) (ie, foods undergoing multiple physical, biological, and/or chemical processes, among which mostly of exclusive industrial use, and generally containing food additives) are widespread worldwide and especially in Western diets, representing between 25% and 60% of total daily energy [calories].”

These results suggest an association between UPF consumption and type 2 diabetes risk. They need to be confirmed in large prospective cohorts in other settings, and underlying mechanisms need to be explored in ad hoc epidemiological and experimental studies. Beyond nutritional factors, nonnutritional dimensions of the diet may play a role in these associations, such as some additives, neoformed contaminants, and contact materials. Even if a causal link between UPF and chronic diseases cannot be established so far, the accumulation of consistent data leads public health authorities in several countries such as France or Brazil to recommend privileging the consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods, and limiting the consumption of UPF in the name of the precautionary principle.

Source: Ultraprocessed Food Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Participants of the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA Internal Medicine | JAMA Network

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: Not much UPF in the Paleobetic Diet.

Click pic to purchase book at Amazon.com. E-book versions available at Smashwords.com.

Paleolithic diet during pregnancy: A potential beneficial effect on metabolic indices and birth weight

Paleobetic diet

“Think of me”

A paleo diet lowered glucose levels during pregnancy. Hmmm…I wonder if that would prevent to treat gestational diabetes. From the European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology:

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Paleolithic diet has recently gained popularity due to its presumed health benefits. The favorable metabolic effects of this diet were assessed in non-pregnant population but its impact during pregnancy remains to be evaluated.

STUDY DESIGN:

A retrospective cohort study comparing two groups. Group A comprised of women with singleton low-risk pregnancy adherent to paleolithic diet throughout gestation (n = 37). Group B comprised low risk pregnant women on a regular diet (n = 39). Women were excluded if they had low adherence to diet, started paleolithic diet during pregnancy, and had pre-gestational diabetes mellitus or other types of metabolic syndrome such as pre gestational hyperlipidemia, hypertension or BMI > 35. Blood indices such as Glucose challenge test scores, hemoglobin, ferritin, and TSH levels were compared. Other pregnancy factors such as maternal weight gain, rest days during gestation and pregnancy complications such as IUGR, GDM or preeclampsia were compared. Lastly, obstetrical outcomes such as mode of delivery and complications such as high-grade tears, as well as neonatal factors such as birth weight and pH were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS:

General maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and parity were comparable between the two groups. Women who maintained a paleolithic diet had a significant decrease in glucose challenge test scores (95.8 mg/dL vs. 123.1 mg/dL, p < 0.01) and increase in hemoglobin levels (12.1 g/dL vs. 11.05 g/dL p < 0.01) and Ferritin (32.1 vs 21.3 mg/mL, p = 0.03) compared to women maintaining regular diet. Maternal pregnancy weight gain was also slightly decreased in group A (9.3Kg vs. 10.8 kg, p = 0.03). Birthweights were lower in group A (3098 g Vs.3275 g, p = 0.046) with no difference in adverse neonatal outcomes. We found no differences in other pregnancy complications or labor outcomes such as mode of delivery, shoulder dystocia or high grade perineal tears.

CONCLUSION:

Paleolithic diet maintained during pregnancy may have a beneficial effect on the glucose tolerance. It also may increase iron stores and hemoglobin levels. Neonates of women maintaining paleolithic diet are slightly lighter but appropriate for gestational age with no difference in neonatal outcomes.

Source: Paleolithic diet during pregnancy-A potential beneficial effect on metabolic indices and birth weight. – PubMed – NCBI

Steve Parker, M.D.

Click pic to purchase book at Amazon.com. E-book versions available at Smashwords.com.

Skipping Breakfast May Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

“In total 6 studies, based on 96,175 participants and 4935 cases, were included. The summary RR for type 2 diabetes comparing ever with never skipping breakfast was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.46, n = 6 studies) without adjustment for BMI, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.34, n = 4 studies) after adjustment for BMI. Nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that risk of type 2 diabetes increased with every additional day of breakfast skipping, but the curve reached a plateau at 4–5 d/wk, showing an increased risk of 55% (summary RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.71). No further increase in risk of type 2 diabetes was observed after 5 d of breakfast skipping/wk (P for nonlinearity = 0.08).

Conclusions

This meta-analysis provides evidence that breakfast skipping is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and the association is partly mediated by BMI.”

Source: Breakfast Skipping Is Associated with Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Is There a Cure for Type 2 Diabetes?

Seems to be, at least for some folks who are overweight. Nine of 10 T2 diabetes are overweight or obese

Science Alert has the story.

The “cure” at hand involves reduction of daily calories to 800 for four weeks. Average weight loss of those in the experimental group was 10 kg (22 lb). The full text of the scientific report may have been published already. I bet the drop-out rate was high.

 Steve Parker, M.D.

 

NASEM: Don’t Trust U.S. Dietary Guidelines

Back to the drawing board

NASEM is the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Dr. Andy Harris writes that:

The nation’s senior scientific body recently released a new report raising serious questions about the “scientific rigor” of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This report confirms what many in government have suspected for years and is the reason why Congress mandated this report in the first place: our nation’s top nutrition policy is not based on sound science.

Dr. Harris notes that since 1980, when the guidelines were first published, rates of obesity have doubled and diabetes has quadrupled.

Current recommendations to reduce saturated fat consumption and to eat health whole grains do not, after all, reduce rates of cardiovascular disease. That was my conclusion about saturated fat in 2009.

For a mere $68 you can read the NASEM report yourself. Better yet, read Tom Naughton’s thoughts for free.

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: The diets I’ve designed are contrary to U.S. Dietary Guidelines.

Soft Drinks Raise Risk of T2 Diabetes and LADA

I enjoy an aspartame-flavored Fresca now and then

I enjoy an aspartame-flavored Fresca now and then

LADA is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.

This new study is out of Sweden. The potential disease-inducing soft drink dose was 400 ml or 13.5 fl oz per day. In the U.S., a typical soda can is 10 fl oz or 355 ml. Surprisingly, artificially-sweetened soft drinks were just as guilty as regular beverages.

From MNT:

“The study included 2,874 Swedish adults, of whom 1,136 had type 2 diabetes, 357 had LADA, and 1,137 were healthy controls.

The team analyzed the self-reported dietary data of each adult, looking specifically at the number of soft drinks consumed up to 1 year before a diabetes diagnosis. Participants’ insulin resistance levels, beta cell function, and autoimmune response were also measured.

The researchers found that adults who reported drinking at least two 200-milliliter servings of soft drinks a day – whether they contained sugar or artificial sweetener – were twice as likely to develop LADA and 2.4 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, compared with those who consumed fewer than two soft drinks daily.

What is more, adults who consumed five 200-milliliter servings of soft drinks daily were found to be at 3.5 times greater risk of LADA and 10.5 times greater risk of type 2 diabetes, regardless of whether the drinks were sugary or artificially sweetened.”

Source: Diabetes risk doubles with more than two soft drinks daily – Medical News Today

Professor Tim Noakes: A Nutrition Heretic and His Low-Carb Epiphany

Paleo-compliant low-carb meal. I almost used this for my Paleobetic Diet book cover.

Paleo-compliant low-carb meal. I almost used this for my Paleobetic Diet book cover.

“I argue that the very reason we are facing an uncontrollable global diabetes/obesity pandemic at the moment, is because we have promoted dietary guidelines that are based solely on “evidence” from associational studies without acknowledging that RCTs [randomized controlled trials] have either not supported those conclusions or might have actively disproved them.

The solution in my mind is that we need to give dietary advice to persons with diabetes, T2DM [type 2 diabetes] especially, based on our understanding of the underlying patho-physiology of the condition, not on false information provided by associational epidemiological studies that are unable to prove causation.  I suggest that we know a number of features of the abnormal biology of T2DM with absolutely certainty.”

—Tim Noakes

Source: The Low Carb Diabetic: NOAKES: DOCTORS, DIETITIANS MAKE DIABETES A THREAT TO LIFE?