Category Archives: Uncategorized

Antioxidants: Is the Bloom Off the Rose?

If you’re the TL;DR type: Antioxidants in supplements or food may not be all they’re cracked up to be.

A science journal article abstract:

The powerful action of antioxidants in preventing premature lipid oxidation in food suggests that the same compounds, when consumed with the daily diet, could unfold antioxidative/anti-aging effects in the human body. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that antioxidants are helpful in preventing various diseases. More detailed chemical and physiological examination of antioxidants shows, however, that the extrapolation of in vitro data to in vivo behavior may be misleading. Indeed, such a procedure fails to take into account the mismatch between most in vitro models (e.g., cell cultures) and in vivo systems. For example, the physiological relevance of pro-oxidative and other physiological activities of antioxidants have been largely underestimated. Actually, contrary to the antioxidant hypothesis, clinical trials testing the health benefits of dietary antioxidants have reported rather mixed or negative results. Many clinical studies have not taken into account the nutrikinetic and nutridynamic nature of antioxidants. Further, oxidative stress is not only an inevitable event in a healthy human cell, but responsible for the functioning of vital metabolic processes, such as insulin signaling and erythropoietin production. In the light of recent physiological studies it appears more advisable to maintain the delicate redox balance of the cell than to interfere with the antioxidant homeostasis by a non-physiological, excessive exogenous supply of antioxidants in healthy humans.

Source: Antioxidants in food: mere myth or magic medicine? – PubMed – NCBI

Steve  Parker, M.D.

Click pic to purchase book at Amazon.com

Incidence of Diabetes in U.S. Is Decreasing

According to researchers at the CDC:

“After an almost 20-year increase in the national prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes, an 8-year period of stable prevalence and a decrease in incidence has occurred. Causes of the plateauing and decrease are unclear but the overall burden of diabetes remains high and deserves continued monitoring and intervention.”

Source: New directions in incidence and prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the USA | BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care

Click pic to purchase book at Amazon in the U.S.

Is There a Single Best Diet for Diabetes?

173 Years of U.S. Sugar Consumption

According to an article at Diabetes Care:

The Consensus Report highlights the role of weight management, dietary patterns, and technology-enabled tools in diabetes prevention and management. There is a clear consensus on reducing intake of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, especially trans fat, in the diet, although the panel does not recommend a “one-size-fits-all” eating plan. Instead, multiple eating patterns including the Mediterrranean diet, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, and vegetarian and low-carbohydrate diets can be used for weight and diabetes management. However, the quality and food sources of the macronutrients are among the most critical factors determining the efficacy and long-term outcomes of these diets.

Source: Nutritional Strategies for Prevention and Management of Diabetes: Consensus and Uncertainties | Diabetes Care

Looks Like “Diabetes Care” is Recommending a  Paleo Diet for Diabetes

From Diabetes Care:

Consensus recommendations:

A variety of eating patterns (combinations of different foods or food groups) are acceptable for the management of diabetes.

Until the evidence surrounding comparative benefits of different eating patterns in specific individuals strengthens, health care providers should focus on the key factors that are common among the patterns:

○ Emphasize nonstarchy vegetables.

○ Minimize added sugars and refined grains.

○ Choose whole foods over highly processed foods to the extent possible.

Reducing overall carbohydrate intake for individuals with diabetes has demonstrated the most evidence for improving glycemia and may be applied in a variety of eating patterns that meet individual needs and preferences.

For select adults with type 2 diabetes not meeting glycemic targets or where reducing antiglycemic medications is a priority, reducing overall carbohydrate intake with low- or very low-carbohydrate eating plans is a viable approach.

Source: Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report | Diabetes Care

Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion Predict Adverse Cardiovascular Events

Heart attack is one of several cardiovascular diseases.

There’s a reason I take a magnesium supplement daily…

“In an observational study, lowest CV (cardiovascular) risk occurred with moderate sodium intake and high potassium intake.

The WHO recommends restricting sodium intake (to 3.5 g daily). However, prior research has shown a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular (CV) disease. In this international cohort study, researchers evaluated the combined association of sodium and potassium excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) on major adverse CV events (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) and death.

More than 100,000 people in 18 countries provided morning fasting urine samples for estimation of 24-hour excretion of sodium and potassium. Median sodium and potassium excretions were 4.9 g and 2.1 g daily. After a mean 8.2 years, 6% of participants had experienced major adverse CV events or died. A J-shaped association between sodium excretion and adverse CV events and death was observed (risk nadir was at sodium excretion of 3–5 g daily). Lowest risk occurred in participants with moderate sodium excretion (3–5 g daily) and high potassium excretion (≥2.1 g daily). Compared with this combination, all other combinations were associated with higher risk, including lower sodium and higher potassium excretion. Higher potassium excretion significantly attenuated risk associated with higher sodium excretion.”

Source: Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion Predict Adverse Cardiovascular Events

The Effectiveness of MyPlate and Paleolithic-based Diet Recommendations, both with and without Exercise In Young Women

This isn’t an important study, but you might find it interesting anyway…

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of recommending a MyPlate or a Paleolithic-based diet, both with and without exercise, on aerobic fitness, strength, and anaerobic power over eight weeks. Participants (n=20) were randomized to one of four groups, (1) a MyPlate diet (MP), (2) Paleolithic-based diet (PD), (3) MyPlate and exercise (MP + Ex), and (4) Paleolithic-based diet and exercise (PD + Ex). The exercise included two days of unsupervised aerobic and resistance exercise. At baseline and final, absolute and relative peak oxygen consumption (absVO2peak and relVO2peak), anaerobic power, and upper and lower body strength were determined. Data were analyzed using repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA indicated that there was no significant interaction between time point (TP)*diet (D)*exercise (Ex) for all variables except relVO2peak (p = 0.016). The MP + Ex group (Δ+4.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) had a greater change from baseline compared to the MP group (Δ-2.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, p = 0.002), and PD + Ex group (Δ-0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1, p = 0.03). The results suggest recommending a MyPlate diet with both aerobic and resistance training are effective at improving aerobic fitness when compared to PD recommendations with exercise, although these conclusions may be confounded by low compliance to exercise recommendations.

Source: The Effectiveness of MyPlate and Paleolithic-based Diet Recommendations, both with and without Exercise, on Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Strength and … – PubMed – NCBI

Does a Modified Paleo Diet Improve Multiple Sclerosis Patients?

Dr. Terry Wahls saw a dramatic and major improvement in her multiple sclerosis after adopting a particular diet. I think she’s calling it a modified paleo diet and it was used in the study linked below. I haven’t read the whole thing yet, but you can see the entire journal article at the link below.

From YouTube:


Note this is a small pilot study with no control group. At first blush, it appears her dramatic diet-related improvement may be difficult to reproduce in others.

Effects of a multimodal intervention on gait and balance of subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective longitudinal pilot study

Authors: Babita Bisht, Warren G Darling, Emily C White, Kaitlin A White, E Torage Shivapour, M Bridget Zimmerman, and Terry L Wahls

Purpose

To investigate the effects of a multimodal intervention including a modified Paleolithic diet, nutritional supplements, stretching, strengthening exercises with electrical stimulation of trunk and lower limb muscles, meditation and massage on walking performance and balance of subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS).

Materials and methods

Twenty subjects with mean (standard deviation) age of 51.7 (6.4) years and Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 6.2 (1) participated in a 12-month study. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months.

Results

The entire cohort did not show significant changes in any of the assessments over 12 months except higher speed of walking toward the 10 feet mark during timed up and go (TUG) test at 6 months compared with baseline (mean change 7.9 cm/s [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 0.3, 15.2; p=0.041). Sub-group analysis revealed that 50% subjects (n=10) showed decrease in TUG time from baseline to at least 3 of 4 time-points post-intervention and were considered as responders (TUG-Res), the remaining 10 subjects were considered as nonresponders (TUG-NRes). Over 12 months, TUG-Res showed decreased mean TUG time by 31% (95% CI: −52%, −2%), increased median Berg Balance Scale scores (42 to 47), 30% increase in mean timed 25-foot walk speed (>20% considered clinically significant) and increased speed of walk toward 10 feet mark during TUG by 11.6 cm/s (95% CI: −3.0, 25.9) associated with increases in step lengths and decrease in step duration. TUG-NRes showed deterioration in walking ability over 12 months. Comparison of TUG-Res and TUG-NRes showed no significant differences in adherence to intervention but better stride duration and longer step length at baseline for TUG-Res than for TUG-NRes (p<0.05).

Conclusion

A multimodal lifestyle intervention may improve walking performance and balance in subjects with progressive MS who have mild-to-moderate gait impairment, whereas subjects with severe gait impairments may not respond to this intervention. Future trials should assess effects of this intervention in subjects with MS during early stages of the disease.

Source: Effects of a multimodal intervention on gait and balance of subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective longitudinal pilot study

The dawn of bread, 14,000 years ago

Archaeologists working at Shubayqa 1, a site in northeastern Jordan, found tiny fragments of an ancient unleavened bread as they were excavating a hearth. The site was made by people of the Natufian culture, 14,400 years ago. The paper describing the discovery, by Amaia Arranz-Otaegui and coworkers, documents the use of a mixed unleavened dough to make bread more than 4000 years before the introduction of agriculture in this region of the world.

Source: The dawn of bread · john hawks weblog

Are 4 of 10 Dietary Research Results Wrong?

paleo diet, paleolithic diet, caveman diet

Spewing mis-information?

It wouldn’t surprise me. That’s why I’m not as dogmatic as some of the other diet gurus out there. Patrick Clinton writes:

“There’s a reason everyone’s confused about whether coffee causes cancer, or whether butter’s good for you or bad. Food research has some big problems, as we’ve discussed here and here: questionable data,  untrustworthy results, and pervasive bias (and not just on the part of Big Food). There’s reason to hope that scientists and academic journals will clean up their acts, and that journalists will refine their bullshit detectors and stop writing breathlessly about new nutrition “discoveries” that are anything but.  Until that happens, though, we all need to get better at filtering for ourselves.”

Source: Almost 40% of peer-reviewed dietary research turns out to be wrong. Here’s why | New Food Economy

Dietitian Julianne Taylor Reviewed 9 Paleo Diet Studies…

“Overall results worth a mention:

Compared to baseline or other healthy diets, the paleo diet achieved better results in every singly study in all the following measures

  • Satiety and satiety hormones
  • Greater reduction in caloric intake without counting calories
  • Greater reduction in fat mass
  • Greater reduction in waist circumference
  • Greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and other markers of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes
  • Greater reduction in blood pressureGreater improvements in blood lipids”

Source: Paleo diets studies show increased satiety and decreased calorie intake | Julianne’s Paleo & Zone Nutrition