Tag Archives: insulin

Do You Have Hypoglycemia Unawareness?

Steve Parker MD

Watch out for hypoglycemia particularly if you exercise vigorously and take drugs with the potential to cause hypoglycemia, like insulin and sulfonylureas

If you take drugs that can cause hypoglycemia, you need to know about “hypoglycemia unawareness.” (Click for a quick review of diabetes drugs.)

Some people with diabetes, particularly after having the condition for many years, lose the ability to detect hypoglycemia just by the way they feel. This hypoglycemia unawareness is obviously more dangerous than being able to detect and treat hypoglycemia early on. Blood sugar levels may continue to fall and reach a life-threatening degree.

Hypoglycemia unawareness can be caused by impairment of the nervous system (autonomic neuropathy) or by beta blocker drugs prescribed for high blood pressure or heart disease. It’s more common in folks who have had diabetes for many years. People with hypoglycemia unawareness need to check blood sugars more frequently, particularly if driving a car or operating dangerous machinery.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Paleolithic Diet May Help Reduce Risk of Obesity

…according to a basic science study published in the British Journal of Nutrition. The mechanism for reducing obesity risk would be increased satiety. We’ve seen that before with the paleo diet as compared to a Mediterranean-style diet. Disappointingly, the researchers didn’t see any paleo diet benefits in these healthy study participants in terms of glucose and insulin metabolism.

I haven’t read the report, don’t have it, don’t know when I’ll read it.

Abstract

There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Reference: Bligh H.F., et al. British J Nutr. 2015 Feb 28;113(4):574-84. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514004012. Epub 2015 Feb 9.
Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

How Does Your Doctor Choose Your Diabetes Drugs?

paleobetic diet, low-carb diet, diabetic diet

How about this one?

We now have 12 classes of drugs for the treatment of diabetes. Choosing which ones to use is not always straightforward.

It’s easy for type 1 diabetes: insulin.

Type 2’s have more options. Metformin is the unanimous #1 pick. After that, it’s murky.

I recently reviewed the American Diabetes Association’s Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2014. A type 2 treatment algorithm therein mentions only six of the 12 available classes. This gives you an idea of expert consensus on which drugs to use. The classes are biquanides (metformin), sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and insulins. This is one reason you don’t see much use of bromocriptine and colesevelam.

The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists also have a type 2 diabetes treatment algorithm, published in 2013. It also addresses prediabetes and overweight/obesity. You’ll see some of the other classes mentioned. It’s confusing because of abbreviations.

Believe it or not, most doctors want to do what’s right for our patients. We want positive results that reduce suffering and death. Does Big Pharma influence the production of guidelines and individual physician drug choices? If I had to guess, I’d say yes. But I don’t have the resources to investigate that in any depth. I know without a doubt that if I recommend a drug and the patient has a bad outcome, it helps me win the malpractice lawsuit if I’ve recommended a guideline-approved drug. Other docs know that, and it’s one of many factors that influence drug choice. We also consider cost (if you bring it up), convenience, patient preference, what our local colleagues are doing, what other illnesses the patient has, potential adverse drug effects, etc.

We don’t know the long-term adverse effects of many of these drugs. That’s why I favor doing as much as reasonably possible with lifestyle modification, such as diet and exercise, before stacking up multiple drugs. If you need drugs, and most with diabetes do, lifestyle modification can help you minimize drug use.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Metabolic Improvements From a Paleolithic Diet in San Francisco

A Paleolithic diet improved metabolic status with respect to cardiovascular and carbohydrate physiology, according to a 2009 study at the University of California San Francisco.

Here are the specific changes, all statistically significant unless otherwise noted:

  • total cholesterol decreased by 16%
  • LDL cholesterol (“bad cholesterol”) decreased by 22% (no change in HDL)
  • triglycerides decreased by 35%
  • strong trend toward reduced fasting insulin (P=0.07)
  • average diastolic blood pressure down by 3 mmHg (no change in systolic pressure)
  • improved insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin resistance; i.e., improved glucose tolerance

Methodology

This was a small, preliminary study: only 11 participants (six male, three female, all healthy (non-diabetic), average age 38, average BMI 28, sedentary, mixed Black/Caucasian/Asian).

Baseline diet characteristics were determined by dietitians, then all participants were placed on a paleo diet, starting with a 7-day ramp-up (increasing fiber and potassium gradually), then a 10-day paleo diet.

The paleo diet: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, canola oil, mayonnaise, and honey.  No dairy legumes, cereals, grains, potatoes.  Alcohol not mentioned ever.  Caloric intake was adjusted to avoid weight change during the study, and participants were told to remain sedentary.  They ate one meal daily at the research center and were sent home with the other meals and snacks pre-packed.

Compared with baseline diets, the paleo diet reduced salt consumption by half while doubling potassium and magnesium intake.  Baseline diet macronutrient calories were 17% from protein, 44% carbohydrate, 38% fat.  Paleo diet macronutrients were 30% protein, 38% carb, 32% fat.  Fiber content wasn’t reported. 

I’m guessing there were no adverse effects.

Comments

This study sounds like fun, easy, basic science: “Hey, let’s do this and see what happens!”

I don’t know a lot about canola oil, but it’s considered one of the healthy oils by folks like Walter Willett.  It sounds more appealing than rapeseed, from whence it comes.

I agree with the investigators that this tiny preliminary study is promising; the paleo diet (aka Stone Age or caveman diet) has potential benefits for prevention and treatment for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease such as heart attack and stroke.

The researchers mentioned their plans to study the paleo diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Any results yet?

Are you working with a physician on a medical issue that may improve or resolve with the paleo diet?  Most doctors don’t know much about the paleo diet yet.  You may convince yours to be open-minded by trying the diet yourself—not always a safe way to go—and showing her your improved clinical results.  Or show her studies such as this.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Disclaimer:  All matters regarding your health require supervision by a personal physician or other appropriate health professional familiar with your current health status.  Always consult your personal physician before making any dietary or exercise changes.

Reference:  Frassetto, L.A., et al.  Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type dietEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition, advance online publication, February 11, 2009.   doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.4