Category Archives: Paleo Diet

Which Dietary Patterns Are Best for Type 1 Diabetes Control?

A mess of Bacon Bit Brussels Sprouts: 6 grams of fiber per serve

Dr. Muccioli over at Diabetes Daily posted a brief article on a recent research study. A snippet:

The authors found that a higher intake of fiber was associated with lower average blood glucose values. In contrast, a higher intake of carbohydrate, alcohol, and monounsaturated fat was negatively associated with glycemic control (these patients typically experienced more variability in their blood glucose levels). Finally, the analysis revealed that “substituting proteins for either carbohydrates, fats, or alcohol, or fats for carbohydrates, were all associated with lower variability in the measured blood glucose values.”

Source: Which Dietary Patterns Are Best for Type 1 Diabetes Control? – Diabetes Daily

Eaton and Konner figured the Paleolithic diet provided over 70 g/day of fiber. How much are we in the West eating now? Something like 15–20 grams.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Paleolithic Dieters: You May Have an Iodine Deficiency

A pinch of salt may cut the bitterness in a cup of coffee

An article in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggests that paleolithic-type diets may be deficient in iodine. See my comment after the link below.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

A 2-year prospective randomized trial in a tertiary referral center where healthy postmenopausal overweight or obese women were randomized to either PD (n=35) or NNR diet (n=35). Dietary iodine intake, 24-UIC, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Completeness of urine sampling was monitored by para-aminobenzoic acid and salt intake by urinary sodium.

RESULTS:

At baseline, median 24-UIC (71.0 μg/l) and 24-UIE (134.0 μg/d) were similar in the PD and NNR groups. After 6 months, 24-UIC had decreased to 36.0 μg/l (P=0.001) and 24-UIE to 77.0 μg/d (P=0.001) in the PD group; in the NNR group, levels were unaltered. FT4, TSH and FT3 were similar in both groups, except for FT3 at 6 months being lower in PD than in NNR group.

CONCLUSIONS:

A PD results in a higher risk of developing ID, than a diet according to the NNR. Therefore, we suggest iodine supplementation should be considered when on a PD.

(European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.134.PMID: 28901333 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.134)

Source: A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women. – PubMed – NCBI

Parker here. I thought I knew a little about the Paleolithic diet, so was surprised to read above that table salt is excluded. It’s not excluded from the Paleobetic Diet. Most table salt purchased in the U.S. iodine-fortified. The introduction of iodized salt in the U.S. in 1924 raised IQ in iodine-deficient regions by 15 points!

Paleo Diet Reduced Low-Grade Inflammation In Obese Postmenopausal Women

I haven’t read the entire article, so probably can’t answer any of your questions. When you read “android fat” below, think “belly fat,” which is linked to poor health outcomes compared to non-belly fat.

OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed.

METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters.

RESULTS: Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P < 0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll-like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P < 0.001) with a significant diet-by-time interaction for serum IL-6 (P = 0.022). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression.

Source: Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI

Do You Eat Food or Feed?

Future Feed

From Hawaiian Libertarian:

“Food is grown, raised, harvested and processed — and if not consumed while fresh — preserved in as natural and organic a state as possible to keep most of it’s nutritious and nourishing qualities intact.

Feed is mass produced by a few large multinational corporations line using bio-technological innovations to quickly and efficiently manufacture product units ready for global distribution and a near infinite shelf life. Its primary traits are using genetically modified grain products to create a marketable product that is usually adulterated with preservatives and flavor enhancements that give it a long shelf life in airtight packaging and designed in a laboratory to stimulate the taste buds to fool the human body into thinking it’s something good for you.

But above all, the primary difference between Food and Feed can be discerned by this: most real food requires little (if any) corporate mass media marketing campaigns to sell product and expand market shares and waistlines alike.”

Source: Hawaiian libertarian: FEED Inc. & The Corporate Campaign Dialectic

Dietitian Amy Kubal Answers, “Are Potatoes Paleo?”

Rosemary Chicken (garnished with pico de gallo) and Rosemary Potatoes

Rosemary Chicken (garnished with pico de gallo) and Rosemary Potatoes

“The whole “to spud or not to spud” issue is seriously ‘no small potatoes’ in the Paleosphere. It’s highly debated as to whether or not white potatoes are ‘safe’ or ‘allowed’, and if they are okay, the questions really start rolling in – Can I eat the skin? I should only eat the red ones, right? How should I prepare them? Do I need to only eat them cold? If I do eat them, does it mean I’m not ‘doing Paleo’? It’s exhausting and absolutely amazing how such an innocent looking food can create so much controversy. Seriously, people are VERY opinionated on the issue, and I’m sure my opinions will not go unopposed. Well, haters be damned, you’re going to get them anyway.”

RTWT.

Source: “Ask Amy The RD”: Are Those Spuds For You?? The “Paleoness” of Potatoes

paleo diet, Steve Parker MD

Sweet potatoes ready to pop in the oven

Grain-free paleolithic diet improves cholesterol levels better than traditional “heart healthy diet”

See modern man walking off that cliff?

See modern man walking off that cliff?

I haven’t read the full text of this new study, but here’s the abstract in case you’re interested:

“Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association.

Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.”

 

Source: Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietar… – PubMed – NCBI

Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Patterns Reduce Markers of Inflammation

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Many chronic medical conditions are though to be caused by chronic inflammation in our bodies. Sample conditions include high blood pressure, coronary artery disease (heart attacks), metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and perhaps some cancers.

Taking the association further: could we prevent or alleviate these conditions by reducing inflammation? If so, diet is one way to do it.

Here’s an abstract from a scientific article I found:

Background: Chronic inflammation and oxidative balance are associated with poor diet quality and risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet–inflammation/oxidative balance association may relate to evolutionary discordance.

“Objective: We investigated associations between 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, and circulating concentrations of 2 related biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an acute inflammatory protein, and F2-isoprostane, a reliable marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation.

Methods: In a pooled cross-sectional study of 30- to 74-y-old men and women in an elective outpatient colonoscopy population (n = 646), we created diet scores from responses on Willett food-frequency questionnaires and measured plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations by ELISA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. Both diet scores were calculated and categorized into quintiles, and their associations with biomarker concentrations were estimated with the use of general linear models to calculate and compare adjusted geometric means, and via unconditional ordinal logistic regression.

Results: There were statistically significant trends for decreasing geometric mean plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations with increasing quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores. The multivariable-adjusted ORs comparing those in the highest with those in the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.05; P-trend = 0.06) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.20; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher hsCRP concentration, and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.95; P-trend 0.01) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.73; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher F2-isoprostane concentration.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that diets that are more Paleolithic- or Mediterranean-like may be associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans.”

Source: Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults

President of Australian Diabetes Society On Paleo Diet for Diabetics: Don’t Do It

Really?

Really?

From SBS.com:

“People with type 2 diabetes should ditch the paleo diet until there’s substantial clinical evidence supporting its health benefits, warns the head of the Australian Diabetes Society.

It may be popular among celebrities but there’s little evidence to support the dozens of claims it can help manage the disease, says Associate Professor Sof Andrikopoulos.

“There have been only two trials worldwide of people with type 2 diabetes on what looks to be a paleo diet,” he said.

“Both studies had fewer than 20 participants, one had no control diet, and at 12 weeks or less, neither study lasted long enough for us to draw solid conclusions about the impact on weight or glycemic control.”

In a paper for the latest issue of the Australian Medical Journal, Andrikopoulos recommends people with type 2 diabetes seek advice from their GPs [general practitioners], registered dietitians and diabetes organizations.”

Source: Diabetics should put paleo on hold: expert | SBS News

I disagree with Prof. Andrikopoulos. We have adequate evidence to support a paleo-style diet for people with diabetes. I review it in 32 pages of my book. If you want to see the evidence right now, search this site for key words: O’Dea, Lindeberg, Jonsson, Frasetto, Ryberg, Mellberg, Boers, and Masharani.

If you seek diet advice from your general practitioner, endocrinologist, registered dietitian, and diabetes organizations, you’ll likely be told to eat too many carbohydrates, including processed man-made foods, which will wreck your glycemic control. The drug companies and medical-industrial complex will benefit at your expense.

Steve Parker, M.D.

No degludec up in here!

Front cover

Paleo Diet Pioneer Melvin Konner’s Latest Thoughts on Healthy Eating

Back in 1985, Melvin Konner and S. Boyd Eaton got the ball rolling on the current Paleolithic diet movement. Thirty years later, what would Konner say is a healthy way to eat?

Recent data on these issues make me more comfortable today saying what not to eat. Our ancestors had no refined carbs, which are killing us. We’d be wise to limit salt and saturated fat, which our ancestors’ prey had little of, and fiber and omega-three fatty acids seem to be good. Most humans have to avoid dairy; many must avoid wheat. Find out if you’re one of them. Exercise. That’s about it.

I’ve seen good data saying salt restriction is both harmful an helpful. So flip a coin or talk to your personal physician. If I were looking at starting a drug for hypertension, I’d certainly cut back on salt first and see if that cured me.

Recent clinical studies show that saturated fat isn’t harmful to most of us.

Steve Parker, M.D.

No link to suicide

Paleolithic Diet Improves Metabolic Syndrome

…according to an article at American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

 

shutterstock_55636213

“Metabolic syndrome” may be a new term for you. It’s a collection of clinical features that are associated with increased future risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic complications such as heart attack and stroke. One in six Americans has metabolic syndrome. Diagnosis requires at least three of the following five conditions:

  • high blood pressure (130/85 or higher, or using a high blood pressure medication)
  • low HDL cholesterol: under 40 mg/dl (1.03 mmol/l) in a man, under 50 mg/dl (1.28 mmol/l) in a women (or either sex taking a cholesterol-lowering drug)
  • triglycerides over 150 mg/dl (1.70 mmol/l) (or taking a cholesterol-lowering drug)
  • abdominal fat: waist circumference 40 inches (102 cm) or greater in a man, 35 inches (89 cm) or greater in a woman
    fasting blood glucose over 100 mg/dl (5.55 mmol/l)
  • fasting blood glucose over 100 mg/dl (5.55 mmol/l)

I don’t plan on reading the full text of the report because it’s a meta-analysis and I’ve likely reviewed the four component studies here already. Here are the results:

Four RCTs [randomized controlled trials] that involved 159 participants were included. The 4 control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets (random-effects model) for waist circumference (mean difference: −2.38 cm; 95% CI: −4.73, −0.04 cm), triglycerides (−0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.76, −0.04 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (−3.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: −7.36, 0.08 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (−2.48 mm Hg; 95% CI: −4.98, 0.02 mm Hg), HDL cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.28 mmol/L), and fasting blood sugar (−0.16 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.44, 0.11 mmol/L). The quality of the evidence for each of the 5 metabolic components was moderate. The home-delivery (n = 1) and dietary recommendation (n = 3) RCTs showed similar effects with the exception of greater improvements in triglycerides relative to the control with the home delivery. None of the RCTs evaluated an improvement in quality of life.

Ways to improve or cure metabolic syndrome include the paleo diet, Mediterranean diet, low-carb diets, ketogenic diets, and exercise. Losing excess fat weight with any reasonable diet would probably work. Enhance effectiveness with exercise.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Reference:Eric W Manheimer,  Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, and Hanno Pijl. Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. AJCN. First published August 12, 2015, doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.115.113613