…according to a basic science study published in the British Journal of Nutrition. The mechanism for reducing obesity risk would be increased satiety. We’ve seen that before with the paleo diet as compared to a Mediterranean-style diet. Disappointingly, the researchers didn’t see any paleo diet benefits in these healthy study participants in terms of glucose and insulin metabolism.
I haven’t read the report, don’t have it, don’t know when I’ll read it.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
Steve Parker, M.D.
Reference: Bligh H.F., et al. British J Nutr. 2015 Feb 28;113(4):574-84. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514004012. Epub 2015 Feb 9.
Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.
The protein in this can raise your blood sugar
I’m considering whether I should advise my patients with diabetes to pay careful attention to the protein content of their diet. It’s an important issue to Dr. Richard K. Bernstein, who definitely says it has to be taken into account.
Here are some of Dr. Bernstein’s ideas pulled from the current edition of Diabetes Solution:
- The liver (and the kidneys and intestines to a lesser extent) can convert protein to glucose, although it’s a slow and inefficient process.
- Since the conversion process—called gluconeogenesis—is slow and inefficient, diabetics don’t see the high blood sugar spikes they would see from many ingested carbohydrates.
- For example, 3 ounces (85 g) of hamburger patty could be converted to 6.5 g of glucose under the right circumstances.
- Protein foods from animals (e.g., meat, fish, chicken, eggs) are about 20% protein by weight.
- Dr. B recommends keeping protein portions in a particular meal consistent day-to-day (for example 6 ounces with each lunch).
- He recommends at least 1–1.2 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight for non-athletic adults.
- The minimum protein he recommends for a 155-lb non-athletic adult is 11.7–14 ounces daily.
- Growing children and athletes need more protein.
- Each uncooked ounce of the foods on his “protein foods” list (page 181) provides about 6 g of protein.
- On his eating plan, you choose the amount of protein in a meal that would satisfy you, which might be 3 ounces or 6–9 ounces.
- If you have gastroparesis, however, you should limit your evening meal protein to 2 ounces of eggs, cheese, fish, or ground meat, while eating more protein at the two earlier meals in the day.
Dr. Bernstein wrote:
In many respects—and going against the grain of a number of the medical establishment’s accepted notions about diabetics and protein—protein will become the most important part of our diet if you are going to control blood sugars just as it was for our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
I haven’t changed my thinking on this issue yet, but will let you know if and when I do. I don’t talk much about protein in Conquer Diabetes and Prediabetes in part because I wanted to keep the program simpler than Dr. Bernstein’s.
As with most aspects of diabetes, your mileage may vary. The effect of dietary protein on blood sugars will depend on type 1 versus type 2 diabetes, and will vary from one person to another. So it may be impossible to set rigid guidelines.
If interested, you can determine how much protein is in various foods at NutritionData.
Steve Parker, M.D.
Posted in Diabetes Complications, Diabetic Diet, Dietary Protein
Tagged blood sugar, Conquer Diabetes and Prediabetes, diabetes, Diabetes Solution, gastroparesis, glucose, protein, protein effect on blood sugar, Richard Bernstein